A latest fad is deep learning which I characterize thus: sophisticated manifestation of fuzzy approaches abetted by numeric modeling and by Monte Carlo walkabouts. It is very expensive.
First some pointers to material:
You know what? Many of these jobs are to pick people's pockets via the commercialism of the web/cloud.
Some think that they can get into this through a boot camp. But, realize, it takes a PhD level of work in order to know the guts. And, that takes time and effort.
Personally, for me, I am thankful. Finally, I see the world gaga about that which is the core of Truth Engineering's motivation.
Remarks: Modified: 07/03/2016
07/03/2016 -- Answer in Quora: What product breakthroughs will recent advances in deep learning enable?